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Wikingerzeit ist ein Begriff der Geschichtswissenschaft. Er wird auf Nordeuropa angewendet, soweit es von den Wikingern bevölkert war, und auf Mittel-, Süd- und Westeuropa, insofern sie von deren Angriffen betroffen waren. Axe handles were normally straight, but during the Viking Age curved handles were sometimes found on carving axes, for instance, to achieve a better balance. Viking Age: Everyday Life During the Extraordinary Era of the Norsemen | Wolf, Kristen | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit. Unterkategorien. Es werden 31 von insgesamt 31 Unterkategorien in dieser Kategorie angezeigt: In Klammern die Anzahl der enthaltenen. Viking age pottery from Birka. April I have just one more post to share with you from the Vikings in BC museum exhibit before I return to things I've made.
Translations in context of "the viking age" in English-German from Reverso Context: The 32 meters high Saga column, depicting scenes from Norway's history. Viking age pottery from Birka. April I have just one more post to share with you from the Vikings in BC museum exhibit before I return to things I've made. Unterkategorien. Es werden 31 von insgesamt 31 Unterkategorien in dieser Kategorie angezeigt: In Klammern die Anzahl der enthaltenen.
Viking Age - UnterkategorienSaebo sword blade inscription. Bärnstensfigur i form av sittande katt, - i Björkö, Svarta jorden. In Ronne there were probably already during the Viking Age , a small settlement of fishermen on the natural harbor. Wikingerschmuck und Replikate der Wikingerzeit Wikingerschmuck - Wer mit den Wikingern die Geschichte von brutalen Raubzügen und ein von Kampf und Krieg bestimmtes Leben verbindet, erkennt nur eine, wenn auch wichtige, Facette der nordischen Kultur. Translations in context of "Viking Age" in English-German from Reverso Context: Already before The Viking Age a farm was established at Huseby. Translations in context of "the viking age" in English-German from Reverso Context: The 32 meters high Saga column, depicting scenes from Norway's history. (Magic) Staffs in the Viking Age - Staffs are some of the oldest ritual tools in human history, serving as important attributes of gods and supernatural beings. The Viking Age app is a one-stop shop for Minnesota Vikings fans, featuring breaking news, expert analysis and hot rumors about the Vikings. Personalize your. Jun 8, - The only know example of toe rings from Viking age Scandinavia. Found in the Völva grave in Fyrkat. Silver. Photo from the Viking exhibition in the.
Viking Age VideoViking Age – Thierry Deleruyelle
Viking Age VideoWho were the Vikings? - Full BBC History Documentary Pictures of Russian history. Suggest an example. Faroe stamps everyday life in the viking age. Beste Spielothek in Bechtbuettel finden an example. Schon vor der Wikingerzeit wurde der erste Hof auf Huseby gegründet.
Longships were used extensively by the Leidang , the Scandinavian defence fleets. The longship allowed the Norse to go Viking , which might explain why this type of ship has become almost synonymous with the concept of Vikings.
The Vikings built many unique types of watercraft, often used for more peaceful tasks. The knarr was a dedicated merchant vessel designed to carry cargo in bulk.
It had a broader hull, deeper draught, and a small number of oars used primarily to manoeuvre in harbours and similar situations.
One Viking innovation was the ' beitass ', a spar mounted to the sail that allowed their ships to sail effectively against the wind.
Ships were an integral part of the Viking culture. They facilitated everyday transportation across seas and waterways, exploration of new lands, raids, conquests, and trade with neighbouring cultures.
They also held a major religious importance. People with high status were sometimes buried in a ship along with animal sacrifices, weapons, provisions and other items, as evidenced by the buried vessels at Gokstad and Oseberg in Norway  and the excavated ship burial at Ladby in Denmark.
Ship burials were also practised by Vikings abroad, as evidenced by the excavations of the Salme ships on the Estonian island of Saaremaa.
Well-preserved remains of five Viking ships were excavated from Roskilde Fjord in the late s, representing both the longship and the knarr.
The ships were scuttled there in the 11th century to block a navigation channel and thus protect Roskilde , then the Danish capital, from seaborne assault.
The remains of these ships are on display at the Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde. In , archaeologists uncovered two Viking boat graves in Gamla Uppsala.
They also discovered that one of the boats still holds the remains of a man, a dog, and a horse, along with other items. Viking society was divided into the three socio-economic classes: Thralls, Karls and Jarls.
Archaeology has confirmed this social structure. Thralls were the lowest ranking class and were slaves. Slaves comprised as much as a quarter of the population.
Thralls were servants and workers in the farms and larger households of the Karls and Jarls, and they were used for constructing fortifications, ramps, canals, mounds, roads and similar hard work projects.
According to the Rigsthula, Thralls were despised and looked down upon. New thralls were supplied by either the sons and daughters of thralls or captured abroad.
The Vikings often deliberately captured many people on their raids in Europe, to enslave them as thralls. The thralls were then brought back home to Scandinavia by boat, used on location or in newer settlements to build needed structures, or sold, often to the Arabs in exchange for silver.
Karls were free peasants. They owned farms, land and cattle and engaged in daily chores like ploughing the fields, milking the cattle, building houses and wagons, but used thralls to make ends meet.
Other names for Karls were 'bonde' or simply free men. The Jarls were the aristocracy of the Viking society. They were wealthy and owned large estates with huge longhouses, horses and many thralls.
The thralls did most of the daily chores, while the Jarls did administration, politics, hunting, sports, visited other Jarls or went abroad on expeditions.
When a Jarl died and was buried, his household thralls were sometimes sacrificially killed and buried next to him, as many excavations have revealed.
In daily life, there were many intermediate positions in the overall social structure and it is believed that there must have been some social mobility.
These details are unclear, but titles and positions like hauldr , thegn , landmand , show mobility between the Karls and the Jarls.
Members of the latter were referred to as drenge , one of the words for warrior. There were also official communities within towns and villages, the overall defence, religion, the legal system and the Things.
Such a woman was referred to as Baugrygr , and she exercised all the rights afforded to the head of a family clan—such as the right to demand and receive fines for the slaughter of a family member—until she married, by which her rights were transferred to her new husband.
After the age of 20, an unmarried woman, referred to as maer and mey , reached legal majority and had the right to decide her place of residence and was regarded as her own person before the law.
Female graves from before the Viking Age in Scandinavia holds a proportional large number of remains from women aged 20 to 35, presumably due to complications of childbirth.
Widows enjoyed the same independent status as unmarried women. A married woman could divorce her husband and remarry. There was no distinction made between children born inside or outside marriage: both had the right to inherit property after their parents, and there were no "legitimate" or "illegitimate" children.
The three classes were easily recognisable by their appearances. Men and women of the Jarls were well groomed with neat hairstyles and expressed their wealth and status by wearing expensive clothes often silk and well crafted jewellery like brooches , belt buckles, necklaces and arm rings.
Almost all of the jewellery was crafted in specific designs unique to the Norse see Viking art. Finger rings were seldom used and earrings were not used at all, as they were seen as a Slavic phenomenon.
Most Karls expressed similar tastes and hygiene, but in a more relaxed and inexpensive way. Archaeological findings throughout Scandinavia and Viking settlements in the British Isles support the idea of the well groomed and hygienic Viking.
Burial with grave goods was a common practice in the Scandinavian world, through the Viking Age and well past the Christianization of the Norse peoples.
The manufacturing of such antler combs was common, as at the Viking settlement at Dublin hundreds of examples of combs from the tenth-century have survived, suggesting that grooming was a common practice.
The sagas tell about the diet and cuisine of the Vikings,  but first hand evidence, like cesspits , kitchen middens and garbage dumps have proved to be of great value and importance.
Undigested remains of plants from cesspits at Coppergate in York have provided much information in this respect. Overall, archaeo-botanical investigations have been undertaken increasingly in recent decades, as a collaboration between archaeologists and palaeoethno-botanists.
This new approach sheds light on the agricultural and horticultural practices of the Vikings and their cuisine. The combined information from various sources suggests a diverse cuisine and ingredients.
Meat products of all kinds, such as cured , smoked and whey -preserved meat,  sausages, and boiled or fried fresh meat cuts, were prepared and consumed.
Certain livestock were typical and unique to the Vikings, including the Icelandic horse , Icelandic cattle , a plethora of sheep breeds,  the Danish hen and the Danish goose.
Most of the beef and horse leg bones were found split lengthways, to extract the marrow. The mutton and swine were cut into leg and shoulder joints and chops.
The frequent remains of pig skull and foot bones found on house floors indicate that brawn and trotters were also popular. Hens were kept for both their meat and eggs, and the bones of game birds such as black grouse , golden plover , wild ducks, and geese have also been found.
Seafood was important, in some places even more so than meat. Whales and walrus were hunted for food in Norway and the north-western parts of the North Atlantic region, and seals were hunted nearly everywhere.
Oysters , mussels and shrimps were eaten in large quantities and cod and salmon were popular fish. In the southern regions, herring was also important.
Milk and buttermilk were popular, both as cooking ingredients and drinks, but were not always available, even at farms.
Food was often salted and enhanced with spices, some of which were imported like black pepper , while others were cultivated in herb gardens or harvested in the wild.
Home grown spices included caraway , mustard and horseradish as evidenced from the Oseberg ship burial  or dill , coriander , and wild celery , as found in cesspits at Coppergate in York.
Thyme , juniper berry , sweet gale , yarrow , rue and peppercress were also used and cultivated in herb gardens. Vikings collected and ate fruits, berries and nuts.
Apple wild crab apples , plums and cherries were part of the diet,  as were rose hips and raspberry , wild strawberry , blackberry , elderberry , rowan , hawthorn and various wild berries, specific to the locations.
The shells were used for dyeing, and it is assumed that the nuts were consumed. The invention and introduction of the mouldboard plough revolutionised agriculture in Scandinavia in the early Viking Age and made it possible to farm even poor soils.
In Ribe , grains of rye , barley , oat and wheat dated to the 8th century have been found and examined, and are believed to have been cultivated locally.
Remains of bread from primarily Birka in Sweden were made of barley and wheat. It is unclear if the Norse leavened their breads, but their ovens and baking utensils suggest that they did.
This suggests a much higher actual percentage, as linen is poorly preserved compared to wool for example.
The quality of food for common people was not always particularly high. The research at Coppergate shows that the Vikings in York made bread from whole meal flour—probably both wheat and rye —but with the seeds of cornfield weeds included.
Corncockle Agrostemma , would have made the bread dark-coloured, but the seeds are poisonous, and people who ate the bread might have become ill.
Seeds of carrots, parsnip , and brassicas were also discovered, but they were poor specimens and tend to come from white carrots and bitter tasting cabbages.
The effects of this can be seen on skeletal remains of that period. Sports were widely practised and encouraged by the Vikings. This included spear and stone throwing, building and testing physical strength through wrestling see glima , fist fighting , and stone lifting.
In areas with mountains, mountain climbing was practised as a sport. Agility and balance were built and tested by running and jumping for sport, and there is mention of a sport that involved jumping from oar to oar on the outside of a ship's railing as it was being rowed.
Swimming was a popular sport and Snorri Sturluson describes three types: diving, long-distance swimming, and a contest in which two swimmers try to dunk one another.
Children often participated in some of the sport disciplines and women have also been mentioned as swimmers, although it is unclear if they took part in competition.
King Olaf Tryggvason was hailed as a master of both mountain climbing and oar-jumping, and was said to have excelled in the art of knife juggling as well.
Skiing and ice skating were the primary winter sports of the Vikings, although skiing was also used as everyday means of transport in winter and in the colder regions of the north.
Horse fighting was practised for sport, although the rules are unclear. It appears to have involved two stallions pitted against each other, within smell and sight of fenced-off mares.
Whatever the rules were, the fights often resulted in the death of one of the stallions. Icelandic sources refer to the sport of knattleik.
A ball game akin to hockey , knattleik involved a bat and a small hard ball and was usually played on a smooth field of ice.
The rules are unclear, but it was popular with both adults and children, even though it often led to injuries.
Knattleik appears to have been played only in Iceland, where it attracted many spectators, as did horse fighting. Hunting, as a sport, was limited to Denmark, where it was not regarded as an important occupation.
Birds, deer , hares and foxes were hunted with bow and spear, and later with crossbows. The techniques were stalking, snare and traps and par force hunting with dog packs.
Both archaeological finds and written sources testify to the fact that the Vikings set aside time for social and festive gatherings.
Board games and dice games were played as a popular pastime at all levels of society. Preserved gaming pieces and boards show game boards made of easily available materials like wood, with game pieces manufactured from stone, wood or bone, while other finds include elaborately carved boards and game pieces of glass, amber , antler or walrus tusk, together with materials of foreign origin, such as ivory.
The Vikings played several types of tafl games; hnefatafl , nitavl nine men's morris and the less common kvatrutafl.
Chess also appeared at the end of the Viking Age. Hnefatafl is a war game, in which the object is to capture the king piece—a large hostile army threatens and the king's men have to protect the king.
It was played on a board with squares using black and white pieces, with moves made according to dice rolls. The Ockelbo Runestone shows two men engaged in Hnefatafl, and the sagas suggest that money or valuables could have been involved in some dice games.
On festive occasions storytelling , skaldic poetry , music and alcoholic drinks, like beer and mead , contributed to the atmosphere.
The Vikings are known to have played instruments including harps , fiddles , lyres and lutes. Viking-age reenactors have undertaken experimental activities such as iron smelting and forging using Norse techniques at Norstead in Newfoundland for example.
The remains of that ship and four others were discovered during a excavation in the Roskilde Fjord. Tree-ring analysis has shown the ship was built of oak in the vicinity of Dublin in about Seventy multi-national crew members sailed the ship back to its home, and Sea Stallion arrived outside Dublin's Custom House on 14 August The purpose of the voyage was to test and document the seaworthiness, speed, and manoeuvrability of the ship on the rough open sea and in coastal waters with treacherous currents.
The crew tested how the long, narrow, flexible hull withstood the tough ocean waves. The expedition also provided valuable new information on Viking longships and society.
The ship was built using Viking tools, materials, and much the same methods as the original ship. Other vessels, often replicas of the Gokstad ship full- or half-scale or Skuldelev have been built and tested as well.
Elements of a Scandinavian identity and practices were maintained in settler societies, but they could be quite distinct as the groups assimilated into the neighboring societies.
Assimilation to the Frankish culture in Normandy for example was rapid. Knowledge about the arms and armour of the Viking age is based on archaeological finds, pictorial representation, and to some extent on the accounts in the Norse sagas and Norse laws recorded in the 13th century.
According to custom, all free Norse men were required to own weapons and were permitted to carry them at all times. These arms indicated a Viking's social status: a wealthy Viking had a complete ensemble of a helmet , shield , mail shirt, and sword.
However, swords were rarely used in battle, probably not sturdy enough for combat and most likely only used as symbolic or decorative items.
Bows were used in the opening stages of land battles and at sea, but they tended to be considered less "honourable" than melee weapons.
Vikings were relatively unusual for the time in their use of axes as a main battle weapon. The warfare and violence of the Vikings were often motivated and fuelled by their beliefs in Norse religion , focusing on Thor and Odin , the gods of war and death.
Such tactics may have been deployed intentionally by shock troops , and the berserk-state may have been induced through ingestion of materials with psychoactive properties, such as the hallucinogenic mushrooms, Amanita muscaria ,  or large amounts of alcohol.
The Vikings established and engaged in extensive trading networks throughout the known world and had a profound influence on the economic development of Europe and Scandinavia.
Except for the major trading centres of Ribe , Hedeby and the like, the Viking world was unfamiliar with the use of coinage and was based on so called bullion economy, that is, the weight of precious metals.
Silver was the most common metal in the economy, although gold was also used to some extent. Silver circulated in the form of bars, or ingots , as well as in the form of jewellery and ornaments.
A large number of silver hoards from the Viking Age have been uncovered, both in Scandinavia and the lands they settled. Organized trade covered everything from ordinary items in bulk to exotic luxury products.
The Viking ship designs, like that of the knarr , were an important factor in their success as merchants. To counter these valuable imports, the Vikings exported a large variety of goods.
These goods included: . Other exports included weapons, walrus ivory , wax , salt and cod. As one of the more exotic exports, hunting birds were sometimes provided from Norway to the European aristocracy, from the 10th century.
Many of these goods were also traded within the Viking world itself, as well as goods such as soapstone and whetstone. Soapstone was traded with the Norse on Iceland and in Jutland , who used it for pottery.
Whetstones were traded and used for sharpening weapons, tools and knives. This trade satisfied the Vikings' need for leather and meat to some extent, and perhaps hides for parchment production on the European mainland.
Wool was also very important as a domestic product for the Vikings, to produce warm clothing for the cold Scandinavian and Nordic climate, and for sails.
Sails for Viking ships required large amounts of wool, as evidenced by experimental archaeology.
There are archaeological signs of organised textile productions in Scandinavia, reaching as far back as the early Iron Ages. Artisans and craftsmen in the larger towns were supplied with antlers from organised hunting with large-scale reindeer traps in the far north.
They were used as raw material for making everyday utensils like combs. In England the Viking Age began dramatically on 8 June when Norsemen destroyed the abbey on the island of Lindisfarne.
The devastation of Northumbria 's Holy Island shocked and alerted the royal courts of Europe to the Viking presence. Not until the s did scholars outside Scandinavia begin to seriously reassess the achievements of the Vikings, recognizing their artistry, technological skills, and seamanship.
Norse Mythology , sagas, and literature tell of Scandinavian culture and religion through tales of heroic and mythological heroes.
Many of these sagas were written in Iceland, and most of them, even if they had no Icelandic provenance, were preserved there after the Middle Ages due to the continued interest of Icelanders in Norse literature and law codes.
The year Viking influence on European history is filled with tales of plunder and colonisation, and the majority of these chronicles came from western witnesses and their descendants.
Less common, though equally relevant, are the Viking chronicles that originated in the east, including the Nestor chronicles, Novgorod chronicles, Ibn Fadlan chronicles, Ibn Rusta chronicles, and brief mentions by Photius , patriarch of Constantinople, regarding their first attack on the Byzantine Empire.
Other chroniclers of Viking history include Adam of Bremen , who wrote, in the fourth volume of his Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum , "[t]here is much gold here in Zealand , accumulated by piracy.
These pirates, which are called wichingi by their own people, and Ascomanni by our own people, pay tribute to the Danish king.
Early modern publications, dealing with what is now called Viking culture, appeared in the 16th century, e. Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus History of the northern people of Olaus Magnus , and the first edition of the 13th-century Gesta Danorum Deeds of the Danes , by Saxo Grammaticus , in The pace of publication increased during the 17th century with Latin translations of the Edda notably Peder Resen's Edda Islandorum of An important early British contributor to the study of the Vikings was George Hickes , who published his Linguarum vett.
During the 18th century, British interest and enthusiasm for Iceland and early Scandinavian culture grew dramatically, expressed in English translations of Old Norse texts and in original poems that extolled the supposed Viking virtues.
The word "viking" was first popularised at the beginning of the 19th century by Erik Gustaf Geijer in his poem, The Viking. Geijer's poem did much to propagate the new romanticised ideal of the Viking, which had little basis in historical fact.
The renewed interest of Romanticism in the Old North had contemporary political implications. The Geatish Society , of which Geijer was a member, popularised this myth to a great extent.
Fascination with the Vikings reached a peak during the so-called Viking revival in the late 18th and 19th centuries as a branch of Romantic nationalism.
In Britain this was called Septentrionalism, in Germany " Wagnerian " pathos, and in the Scandinavian countries Scandinavism.
Pioneering 19th-century scholarly editions of the Viking Age began to reach a small readership in Britain, archaeologists began to dig up Britain's Viking past, and linguistic enthusiasts started to identify the Viking-Age origins of rural idioms and proverbs.
The new dictionaries of the Old Norse language enabled the Victorians to grapple with the primary Icelandic sagas.
Few scholars still accept these texts as reliable sources, as historians now rely more on archaeology and numismatics , disciplines that have made valuable contributions toward understanding the period.
The romanticised idea of the Vikings constructed in scholarly and popular circles in northwestern Europe in the 19th and early 20th centuries was a potent one, and the figure of the Viking became a familiar and malleable symbol in different contexts in the politics and political ideologies of 20th-century Europe.
In Germany, awareness of Viking history in the 19th century had been stimulated by the border dispute with Denmark over Schleswig-Holstein and the use of Scandinavian mythology by Richard Wagner.
The idealised view of the Vikings appealed to Germanic supremacists who transformed the figure of the Viking in accordance with the ideology of a Germanic master race.
The cultural phenomenon of Viking expansion was re-interpreted for use as propaganda to support the extreme militant nationalism of the Third Reich, and ideologically informed interpretations of Viking paganism and the Scandinavian use of runes were employed in the construction of Nazi mysticism.
Other political organisations of the same ilk, such as the former Norwegian fascist party Nasjonal Samling , similarly appropriated elements of the modern Viking cultural myth in their symbolism and propaganda.
Soviet and earlier Slavophile historians emphasized a Slavic rooted foundation in contrast to the Normanist theory of the Vikings conquering the Slavs and founding the Kievan Rus'.
They argued that Rus' composition was Slavic and that Rurik and Oleg' success was rooted in their support from within the local Slavic aristocracy.
These have included novels directly based on historical events, such as Frans Gunnar Bengtsson 's The Long Ships which was also released as a film , and historical fantasies such as the film The Vikings , Michael Crichton 's Eaters of the Dead movie version called The 13th Warrior , and the comedy film Erik the Viking.
Vikings appear in several books by the Danish American writer Poul Anderson , while British explorer, historian, and writer Tim Severin authored a trilogy of novels in about a young Viking adventurer Thorgils Leifsson, who travels around the world.
The character also appears in the film The Avengers and its associated animated series. The appearance of Vikings within popular media and television has seen a resurgence in recent decades, especially with the History Channel's series Vikings , directed by Michael Hirst.
However, the conclusions remain contentious. Vikings have served as an inspiration for numerous video games , such as The Lost Vikings , Age of Mythology , and For Honor Modern reconstructions of Viking mythology have shown a persistent influence in late 20th- and early 21st-century popular culture in some countries, inspiring comics, movies, television series, role-playing games, computer games, and music, including Viking metal , a subgenre of heavy metal music.
Since the s, there has been rising enthusiasm for historical reenactment. While the earliest groups had little claim for historical accuracy, the seriousness and accuracy of reenactors has increased.
Many reenactor groups participate in live-steel combat, and a few have Viking-style ships or boats. Apart from two or three representations of ritual helmets—with protrusions that may be either stylised ravens, snakes, or horns—no depiction of the helmets of Viking warriors, and no preserved helmet, has horns.
The formal, close-quarters style of Viking combat either in shield walls or aboard "ship islands" would have made horned helmets cumbersome and hazardous to the warrior's own side.
Historians therefore believe that Viking warriors did not wear horned helmets; whether such helmets were used in Scandinavian culture for other, ritual purposes, remains unproven.
The general misconception that Viking warriors wore horned helmets was partly promulgated by the 19th-century enthusiasts of Götiska Förbundet , founded in in Stockholm.
The Vikings were often depicted with winged helmets and in other clothing taken from Classical antiquity , especially in depictions of Norse gods. This was done to legitimise the Vikings and their mythology by associating it with the Classical world, which had long been idealised in European culture.
The latter-day mythos created by national romantic ideas blended the Viking Age with aspects of the Nordic Bronze Age some 2, years earlier.
Horned helmets from the Bronze Age were shown in petroglyphs and appeared in archaeological finds see Bohuslän and Vikso helmets.
They were probably used for ceremonial purposes. Cartoons like Hägar the Horrible and Vicky the Viking , and sports kits such as those of the Minnesota Vikings and Canberra Raiders have perpetuated the myth of the horned helmet.
Viking helmets were conical, made from hard leather with wood and metallic reinforcement for regular troops. The iron helmet with mask and mail was for the chieftains, based on the previous Vendel -age helmets from central Sweden.
The only original Viking helmet discovered is the Gjermundbu helmet , found in Norway. This helmet is made of iron and has been dated to the 10th century.
The image of wild-haired, dirty savages sometimes associated with the Vikings in popular culture is a distorted picture of reality.
There is no evidence that Vikings drank out of the skulls of vanquished enemies. This was a reference to drinking horns , but was mistranslated in the 17th century  as referring to the skulls of the slain.
Studies of genetic diversity provide indication of the origin and expansion of the Norse population. Female descent studies show evidence of Norse descent in areas closest to Scandinavia, such as the Shetland and Orkney islands.
Recent research suggests that the Celtic warrior Somerled , who drove the Vikings out of western Scotland and was the progenitor of Clan Donald , may have been of Viking descent , a member of haplogroup R-M From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Viking disambiguation. Norse explorers, warriors, merchants, and pirates. Contemporary countries.
Denmark Finland Iceland Norway Sweden. Other topics. Main article: Viking Age. Main article: Viking expansion.
Main article: Runestone. The Lingsberg Runestone in Sweden. Runic inscriptions of the larger of the Jelling Stones in Denmark.
Two types of Norse runestones from the Viking Age. See also: Norse funeral and Ship burial. Burial mounds Gamla Uppsala.
Examples of Viking burial mounds and stone set graves, collectively known as tumuli. Main article: Viking ships. Prow of the Oseberg ship , at Oslo Museum.
A reconstructed longship. Two typical viking ships. Main article: Viking Age arms and armour. Viking swords. This section appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture.
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August Learn how and when to remove this template message. The Vikings. Cambridge University Press. The term 'Viking' This is the narrow, and technically the only correct use of the term 'Viking,' but in such expressions as 'Viking civilisation,' 'the Viking age,' 'the Viking movement,' 'Viking influence,' the word has come to have a wider significance and is used as a concise and convenient term for describing the whole of the civilisation, activity and influence of the Scandinavian peoples, at a particular period in their history, and to apply the term 'Viking' in its narrower sense to these movements would be as misleading as to write an account of the age of Elizabeth and label it 'The Buccaneers.
Historical Dictionary of the Vikings. Scarecrow Press. Viking is not merely another way of referring to a medieval Scandinavian. Technically, the word has a more specific meaning, and it was used only infrequently by contemporaries of the Vikings to refer to those Scandinavians, usually men, who attacked their contemporaries Simpson, Jacqueline The Viking World.
Strictly speaking, therefore, the term Viking should only be applied to men actually engaged in these violent pursuits, and not to every contemporary Scandinavian Davies, Norman The Isles: A History.
Oxford University Press. The Viking appellation Encyclopaedia Britannica. The term "Viking" is applied today to Scandinavians who left their homes intent on raiding or conquest, and their descendants, during a period extending roughly from a.
Mawer, Allen In Bury, J. The Cambridge Medieval History. The term Viking The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology 2 ed. Retrieved 3 January Scandinavian words used to describe the seafaring raiders from Norway, Sweden, and Denmark who ravaged the coasts of Europe from about ad onwards.
Crowcroft, Robert; Cannon, John , eds. The Oxford Companion to British History 2 ed. Viking is an Old Norse term, of disputed derivation, which only came into common usage in the 19th cent.
Concise Oxford English Dictionary. OUP Oxford. Vikings: Any of the Scandinavian seafaring pirates and traders who raided and settled in many parts of NW Europe in the 8th—11th centuries Random House Unabridged Dictionary Random House.
Collins Online Dictionary. The Vikings were people who sailed from Scandinavia and attacked villages in most parts of north-western Europe from the 8th to the 11th centuries Collins English Dictionary.
Webster's New World Dictionary, 4th Edition Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Cambridge Dictionary. Archived from the original on 5 May Retrieved 30 September Viking, also called Norseman or Northman, member of the Scandinavian seafaring warriors who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the 9th to the 11th century and whose disruptive influence profoundly affected European history.
These pagan Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish warriors were Archived from the original on 30 September Lepel Regional Executive Committee.
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Spiegel Online International. Archived from the original on 1 March Retrieved 27 February Aarhus University. Retrieved 20 December Acta Archaeologica.
Archived from the original on 30 May Retrieved 19 July Live Science. Archived from the original on 29 July Retrieved 21 July All That's Interesting.
Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 22 July Not According to Their Slaves". National Geographic News. Archived from the original on 2 August Retrieved 2 August Wyatt Slaves and Warriors in Medieval Britain and Ireland: — Archived from the original on 23 July The Telegraph.
Archived from the original on 1 August The culprits—probably Norwegians who sailed directly across the North Sea—did not destroy the monastery completely, but the attack shook the European religious world to its core.
Unlike other groups, these strange new invaders had no respect for religious institutions such as the monasteries, which were often left unguarded and vulnerable near the shore.
Two years later, Viking raids struck the undefended island monasteries of Skye and Iona in the Hebrides as well as Rathlin off the northeast coast of Ireland.
For several decades, the Vikings confined themselves to hit-and-run raids against coastal targets in the British Isles particularly Ireland and Europe the trading center of Dorestad, 80 kilometers from the North Sea, became a frequent target after They then took advantage of internal conflicts in Europe to extend their activity further inland: after the death of Louis the Pious, emperor of Frankia modern-day France and Germany , in , his son Lothar actually invited the support of a Viking fleet in a power struggle with brothers.
Before long other Vikings realized that Frankish rulers were willing to pay them rich sums to prevent them from attacking their subjects, making Frankia an irresistible target for further Viking activity.
By the mid-ninth century, Ireland, Scotland and England had become major targets for Viking settlement as well as raids.
When King Charles the Bald began defending West Frankia more energetically in , fortifying towns, abbeys, rivers and coastal areas, Viking forces began to concentrate more on England than Frankia.
In the wave of Viking attacks in England after , only one kingdom—Wessex—was able to successfully resist. Viking armies mostly Danish conquered East Anglia and Northumberland and dismantled Mercia, while in King Alfred the Great of Wessex became the only king to decisively defeat a Danish army in England.
In the first half of the 10th century, English armies led by the descendants of Alfred of Wessex began reconquering Scandinavian areas of England; the last Scandinavian king, Erik Bloodaxe, was expelled and killed around , permanently uniting English into one kingdom.
Meanwhile, Viking armies remained active on the European continent throughout the ninth century, brutally sacking Nantes on the French coast in and attacking towns as far inland as Paris, Limoges, Orleans, Tours and Nimes.
In , Vikings stormed Seville then controlled by the Arabs ; in , they plundered Pisa, though an Arab fleet battered them on the way back north.
In the ninth century, Scandinavians mainly Norwegians began to colonize Iceland, an island in the North Atlantic where no one had yet settled in large numbers.
By the late 10th century, some Vikings including the famous Erik the Red moved even further westward, to Greenland.
According to later Icelandic histories, some of the early Viking settlers in Greenland supposedly led by the Viking hero Leif Eriksson , son of Erik the Red may have become the first Europeans to discover and explore North America.
The midth-century reign of Harald Bluetooth as king of a newly unified, powerful and Christianized Denmark marked the beginning of a second Viking age.
Large-scale raids, often organized by royal leaders, hit the coasts of Europe and especially England, where the line of kings descended from Alfred the Great was faltering.
Crowned king of England on Christmas Day in , William managed to retain the crown against further Danish challenges.
The events of in England effectively marked the end of the Viking Age. Today, signs of the Viking legacy can be found mostly in the Scandinavian origins of some vocabulary and place-names in the areas in which they settled, including northern England, Scotland and Russia.
In Iceland, the Vikings left an extensive body of literature, the Icelandic sagas, in which they celebrated the greatest victories of their glorious past.
But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present.
The Viking Age brought change not only to the regions of Europe plundered and conquered by the Nordic warriors, but to Scandinavia itself.
Beginning around A. While the exact reasons for Vikings venturing out from their homeland are uncertain; some have suggested it was Advances in Shipbuilding and Navigation Perhaps the most striking of Viking achievements was their state-of-the-art shipbuilding technology, which allowed them to travel greater distances than anyone before them.
Their signature longboats—sleek wooden vessels with shallow Not even St. Patrick himself could protect Ireland from the Vikings.Solo Kartenspiel Castle Garrison Hall. Aus Wikimedia Commons, dem Beste Spielothek in Steineberg finden Medienarchiv. Wikingerzeit und überlebt in Gotland zusammen mit mehreren anderen mittelalterlichen oder Viking Spiele. See examples translated by der Wikingerzeit 47 examples with alignment. Suggest an example. Memorial penny not during his Bundestagswahl Wetten of Edmund the Martyr. Ravensborg ringfort. Although my personal interests concentrate on the Viking Age and the late fifteenth century, Laute Zustimmung am able to make clothing from all periods of the 20 Questions Spiel Ages. Due to its central location, the island was used during the Viking Age as a meeting place. Jewellery and replicas of the viking age The Vikings are usually associated with the story of brutal raids and a life of struggle and war, but that recognizes only one, but important, facet of the Nordic culture. Faroe stamp everyday life in the viking Holiday Season.
Viking Age Der InhaltDuring the Viking Age in the Faroe Islands, she was a powerful, influential woman. Even when the museum was built inmany findings were revealed from the Viking Age. Bildsten med skepp, Smiss, Gotland. Saebo sword blade inscription. Hnefatafl pawns. Although my personal interests concentrate on the Viking Age and the late fifteenth century, I am able to make clothing from all periods of the Middle Ages. Exact: Valknut means 'knot of those slain in battle' and its symbol of three interlinked triangles appears on numerous artefacts from the Viking Age. Kinderspiele Download Kostenlos inappropriate content Unlock.
After the battle of Clontarf, the Dublin Vikings could no longer "single-handedly threaten the power of the most powerful kings of Ireland".
While few records are known, the Vikings are thought to have led their first raids in Scotland on the holy island of Iona in , the year following the raid on the other holy island of Lindisfarne, Northumbria.
In , a large Norse fleet invaded via the River Tay and River Earn , both of which were highly navigable, and reached into the heart of the Pictish kingdom of Fortriu.
After four months, its water supply failed, and the fortress fell. The Vikings are recorded to have transported a vast prey of British, Pictish, and English captives back to Ireland.
These prisoners may have included the ruling family of Alt Clut including the king Arthgal ap Dyfnwal , who was slain the following year under uncertain circumstances.
The fall of Alt Clut marked a watershed in the history of the realm. The land that now comprises most of the Scottish Lowlands had previously been the northernmost part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria , which fell apart with its Viking conquest; these lands were never regained by the Anglo-Saxons, or England.
The upheaval and pressure of Viking raiding, occupation, conquest and settlement resulted in alliances among the formerly enemy peoples that comprised what would become present-day Scotland.
Over the subsequent years, this Viking upheaval and pressure led to the unification of the previously contending Gaelic, Pictish, British, and English kingdoms, first into the kingdom of Alba , and finally into the greater Kingdom of Scotland.
The last vestiges of Norse power in the Scottish seas and islands were completely relinquished after another years. The Norse settlers were to some extent integrating with the local Gaelic population see Norse-Gaels in the Hebrides and Man.
These areas were ruled over by local Jarls , originally captains of ships or hersirs. The Jarl of Orkney and Shetland, however, claimed supremacy.
In his attempt to unite Norway, he found that many of those opposed to his rise to power had taken refuge in the Isles.
From here, they were raiding not only foreign lands but were also attacking Norway itself. He organised a fleet and was able to subdue the rebels, and in doing so brought the independent Jarls under his control, many of the rebels having fled to Iceland.
He found himself ruling not only Norway, but also the Isles, Man, and parts of Scotland. A fleet was sent against them led by Ketil Flatnose to regain control.
On his success, Ketil was to rule the Sudreys as a vassal of King Harald. His grandson, Thorstein the Red , and Sigurd the Mighty , Jarl of Orkney, invaded Scotland and were able to exact tribute from nearly half the kingdom until their deaths in battle.
Ketil declared himself King of the Isles. Ketil was eventually outlawed and, fearing the bounty on his head, fled to Iceland. The Norse-Gaelic Kings of the Isles continued to act semi independently, in forming a defensive pact with the Kings of Scotland and Strathclyde.
Magnus and King Edgar of Scotland agreed on a treaty. The islands would be controlled by Norway, but mainland territories would go to Scotland.
The King of Norway nominally continued to be king of the Isles and Man. However, in , The kingdom was split into two. His kingdom was to develop latterly into the Lordship of the Isles.
In eastern Aberdeenshire , the Danes invaded at least as far north as the area near Cruden Bay. The Jarls of Orkney continued to rule much of northern Scotland until , when Harald Maddadsson agreed to pay tribute to William the Lion , King of Scots, for his territories on the mainland.
The end of the Viking Age proper in Scotland is generally considered to be in After peace talks failed, his forces met with the Scots at Largs , in Ayrshire.
The battle proved indecisive, but it did ensure that the Norse were not able to mount a further attack that year. Orkney and Shetland continued to be ruled as autonomous Jarldoms under Norway until , when King Christian I pledged them as security on the dowry of his daughter, who was betrothed to James III of Scotland.
Although attempts were made during the 17th and 18th centuries to redeem Shetland, without success,  and Charles II ratifying the pawning in the Act for annexation of Orkney and Shetland to the Crown , explicitly exempting them from any "dissolution of His Majesty's lands",  they are currently considered as being officially part of the United Kingdom.
Wales was not colonised by the Vikings as heavily as eastern England. The Vikings did, however, settle in the south around St.
David 's, Haverfordwest , and Gower , among other places. Place names such as Skokholm, Skomer, and Swansea remain as evidence of the Norse settlement.
According to Sagas, Iceland was discovered by Naddodd , a Viking from the Faroe Islands, after which it was settled by mostly Norwegians fleeing the oppressive rule of Harald Fairhair late 9th century.
While harsh, the land allowed for a pastoral farming life familiar to the Norse. According to the saga of Erik the Red , when Erik was exiled from Iceland, he sailed west and pioneered Greenland.
The Viking-Age settlements in Greenland were established in the sheltered fjords of the southern and western coast. While harsh, the microclimates along some fjords allowed for a pastoral lifestyle similar to that of Iceland, until the climate changed for the worse with the Little Ice Age around A contemporary reference to Kvenland is provided in an Old English account written in the 9th century.
It used the information provided by the Norwegian adventurer and traveller named Ohthere. Kvenland, in that or close to that spelling, is also known from Nordic sources, primarily Icelandic, but also one that was possibly written in the modern-day area of Norway.
All the remaining Nordic sources discussing Kvenland, using that or close to that spelling, date to the 12th and 13th centuries, but some of them—in part at least—are believed to be rewrites of older texts.
The society, economy, settlement and culture of the territory of what is in the present-day the country of Estonia is studied mainly through archaeological sources.
The era is seen to have been a period of rapid change. The Estonian peasant culture came into existence by the end of the Viking Age.
The overall understanding of the Viking Age in Estonia is deemed to be fragmentary and superficial, because of the limited amount of surviving source material.
The main sources for understanding the period are remains of the farms and fortresses of the era, cemeteries and a large amount of excavated objects.
The landscape of Ancient Estonia featured numerous hillforts, some later hillforts on Saaremaa heavily fortified during the Viking Age and on to the 12th century.
Engaging in trade , piracy , and mercenary activities, they roamed the river systems and portages of Gardariki , reaching the Caspian Sea and Constantinople.
Contemporary English publications also use the name " Viking " for early Varangians in some contexts. The term Varangian remained in usage in the Byzantine Empire until the 13th century, largely disconnected from its Scandinavian roots by then.
Having settled Aldeigja Ladoga in the s, Scandinavian colonists were probably an element in the early ethnogenesis of the Rus' people , and likely played a role in the formation of the Rus' Khaganate.
It was the time of rapid expansion of the Vikings in Northern Europe; England began to pay Danegeld in , and the Curonians of Grobin faced an invasion by the Swedes at about the same date.
In , the Finnic and Slavic tribes rebelled against the Varangian Rus, driving them overseas back to Scandinavia, but soon started to conflict with each other.
As the Volga route declined by the end of the century, the Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks rapidly overtook it in popularity. The scholarly consensus  is that the Rus' people originated in what is currently coastal eastern Sweden around the eighth century and that their name has the same origin as Roslagen in Sweden with the older name being Roden.
In these years, Swedish men left to enlist in the Byzantine Varangian Guard in such numbers that a medieval Swedish law, Västgötalagen , from Västergötland declared no one could inherit while staying in "Greece"—the then Scandinavian term for the Byzantine Empire —to stop the emigration,  especially as two other European courts simultaneously also recruited Scandinavians:  Kievan Rus' c.
In contrast to the intense Scandinavian influence in Normandy and the British Isles, Varangian culture did not survive to a great extent in the East.
Instead, the Varangian ruling classes of the two powerful city-states of Novgorod and Kiev were thoroughly Slavicised by the end of the 10th century.
Old Norse was spoken in one district of Novgorod, however, until the 13th century. Viking Age Scandinavian settlements were set up along the southern coast of the Baltic Sea , primarily for trade purposes.
Their appearance coincides with the settlement and consolidation of the Slavic tribes in the respective areas. Scandinavian arrowheads from the 8th and 9th centuries were found between the coast and the lake chains in the Mecklenburgian and Pomeranian hinterlands, pointing at periods of warfare between the Scandinavians and Slavs.
In the historical context, Frisia was a region which spanned from around modern-day Bruges to the islands on the west coast of Jutland.
This region was progressively brought under Frankish control Frisian-Frankish Wars but the Christianisation of the local population and cultural assimilation was a slow process.
There is evidence that Frisians sometimes became Vikings themselves . At the same time, several Frisian towns, most notably Dorestad were raided by Vikings.
On Wieringen the Vikings most likely had a base of operations. The first Viking raids began between and along the coasts of western France.
They were carried out primarily in the summer, as the Vikings wintered in Scandinavia. Several coastal areas were lost to Francia during the reign of Louis the Pious — But the Vikings took advantage of the quarrels in the royal family caused after the death of Louis the Pious to settle their first colony in the south-west Gascony of the kingdom of Francia, which was more or less abandoned by the Frankish kings after their two defeats at Roncevaux.
The Viking attackers sought to capture the treasures stored at monasteries , easy prey given the monks' lack of defensive capacity.
In an expedition up the Seine reached Paris. The presence of Carolingian deniers of ca , found in among a hoard at Mullaghboden, County Limerick, where coins were neither minted nor normally used in trade, probably represents booty from the raids of — Robert's victory later paved way for Rollo's baptism and settlement in Normandy.
In exchange, Rollo pledged vassalage to Charles in , agreed to be baptised , and vowed to guard the estuaries of the Seine from further Viking attacks.
During Rollo's baptism Robert I of France stood as his godfather. The Scandinavian expansion included Danish and Norwegian as well as Swedish elements, all under the leadership of Rollo.
The Normans conquered England and southern Italy in 11th century, and played a key role in the Crusades. In , according to an account by the Norman monk Dudo of Saint-Quentin , a Viking fleet, probably under Björn Ironside and Hastein , landed at the Ligurian port of Luni and sacked the city.
The Vikings then moved another 60 miles down the Tuscan coast to the mouth of the Arno , sacking Pisa and then, following the river upstream, also the hill-town of Fiesole above Florence , among other victories around the Mediterranean including in Sicily and North Africa.
After , when the Vikings set up a permanent base at the mouth of the Loire river, they could strike as far as northern Spain.
In some of their raids they were crushed either by Asturian or Cordoban armies. These Vikings were Hispanicised in all Christian kingdoms, while they kept their ethnic identity and culture in Al-Andalus.
In , a Viking fleet entered the river Minho and sacked the episcopal city of Tui Galicia ; no new bishop was appointed until In , many dozens of drakkars appeared in the "Mar da Palha" "the Sea of Straw", mouth of the Tagus river.
They left after 13 days, following a resistance led by Alah Ibn Hazm and the city's inhabitants. Another raid was attempted in , without success.
They created a small settlement on the northern peninsula of present-day Newfoundland , near L'Anse aux Meadows.
Conflict with indigenous peoples and lack of support from Greenland brought the Vinland colony to an end within a few years. The Vikings were equipped with the technologically superior longships; for purposes of conducting trade however, another type of ship, the knarr , wider and deeper in draft, were customarily used.
The Vikings were competent sailors, adept in land warfare as well as at sea, and they often struck at accessible and poorly defended targets, usually with near impunity.
The effectiveness of these tactics earned Vikings a formidable reputation as raiders and pirates. The Vikings used their longships to travel vast distances and attain certain tactical advantages in battle.
They could perform highly efficient hit-and-run attacks, in which they quickly approached a target, then left as rapidly as possible before a counter-offensive could be launched.
Because of the ships' negligible draft, the Vikings could sail in shallow waters, allowing them to invade far inland along rivers. The ships were agile, and light enough to be carried over land from one river system to another.
The use of the longships ended when technology changed, and ships began to be constructed using saws instead of axes, resulting in inferior vessels.
While battles at sea were rare, they would occasionally occur when Viking ships attempted to board European merchant vessels in Scandinavian waters.
When larger scale battles ensued, Viking crews would rope together all nearby ships and slowly proceed towards the enemy targets.
While advancing, the warriors hurled spears, arrows, and other projectiles at the opponents. When the ships were sufficiently close, melee combat would ensue using axes, swords, and spears until the enemy ship could be easily boarded.
The roping technique allowed Viking crews to remain strong in numbers and act as a unit, but this uniformity also created problems.
A Viking ship in the line could not retreat or pursue hostiles without breaking the formation and cutting the ropes, which weakened the overall Viking fleet and was a burdensome task to perform in the heat of battle.
In general, these tactics enabled Vikings to quickly destroy the meagre opposition posted during raids. Together with an increasing centralisation of government in the Scandinavian countries, the old system of leidang — a fleet mobilisation system, where every skipreide ship community had to maintain one ship and a crew — was discontinued as a purely military institution, as the duty to build and man a ship soon was converted into a tax.
The Norwegian leidang was called under Haakon Haakonson for his expedition to Scotland during the Scottish—Norwegian War, and the last recorded calling of it was in However, already by the 11th and 12th centuries, European fighting ships were built with raised platforms fore and aft, from which archers could shoot down into the relatively low longships.
This led to the defeat of longship navies in most subsequent naval engagements—e. Exactly how the Vikings navigated the open seas with such success is unclear.
While some evidence points to the use of calcite "sunstones" to find the sun's location, modern reproductions of Viking "sky-polarimetric" navigation have found these sun compasses to be highly inaccurate, and not usable in cloudy or foggy weather.
The archaeological find known as the Visby lenses from the Swedish island of Gotland may be components of a telescope.
It appears to date from long before the invention of the telescope in the 17th century. One important centre of trade was at Hedeby.
Close to the border with the Franks, it was effectively a crossroads between the cultures, until its eventual destruction by the Norwegians in an internecine dispute around However, those items could also have been Byzantine imports, and there is no reason to assume that the Varangians travelled significantly beyond Byzantium and the Caspian Sea.
A genetic study published at bioRxiv in July examined the population genomics of the Viking Age. It was found that there was a notable foreign gene flow into Scandinavia in the years preceding the Viking Age and during the Viking Age itself.
This gene flow entered Denmark and eastern Sweden , from which it spread into the rest of Scandinavia.
The study also found that despite close cultural similarities, there were distinct genetic differences between regional populations in the Viking Age.
These differences have persisted into modern times. Inland areas were found to be more genetically homogenous than coastal areas and islands such as Öland and Gotland.
These islands were probably important trade settlements. The Vikings were found to have left a profound genetic imprint in the areas they settled, which has persisted into modern times.
The genetic data from these areas affirmed conclusions previously drawn from historical and archaeological evidence.
During, and as a result of the Viking Age, Scandinavia moved from a loose coexistence of tribes and petty kingdoms to the three Nordic countries that still exist today.
The long-term linguistic effect of the Viking settlements in England was threefold: over a thousand Old Norse words eventually became part of Standard English ; numerous places in the East and North-east of England have Danish names, and many English personal names are of Scandinavian origin.
The system of personal pronouns was affected, with they, them and their replacing the earlier forms. Old Norse influenced the verb to be ; the replacement of sindon by are is almost certainly Scandinavian in origin, as is the third-person-singular ending -s in the present tense of verbs.
There are more than 1, Scandinavian place names in England, mainly in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire within the former boundaries of the Danelaw : over end in -by , the Scandinavian word for "village"—for example Grimsby, Naseby and Whitby ;  many others end in -thorpe "farm" , -thwaite "clearing" , and -toft "homestead".
The distribution of family names showing Scandinavian influence is still, as an analysis of names ending in -son reveals, concentrated in the north and east, corresponding to areas of former Viking settlement.
And they came to the church of Lindisfarne, laid everything waste with grievous plundering, trampled the holy places with polluted feet, dug up the altars, and seized all the treasures of the holy church.
They killed some of the brothers; some they took away with them in fetters; many they drove out, naked and loaded with insults; and some they drowned in the sea.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 14 July Contemporary countries.
Denmark Finland Iceland Norway Sweden. Other topics. Rituals and worship. Main article: Viking expansion. Main article: Scandinavian Scotland.
Main article: Kingdom of the Isles. Main article: Kvenland. Main article: Viking Age in Estonia. Further information: Pomerania during the Early Middle Ages.
Norse people. Scandinavia History. WikiProject Norse history and culture. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.
April Main article: Viking raids in the Rhineland. Main article: L'Anse aux Meadows. Further information: Longship and Viking Age arms and armour.
See also: Norse paganism and Norse mythology. This section is empty. Main article: History of Scandinavia. The Vikings. Cambridge University Press.
The term ' Viking ' is derived from the Old Norse vik, a bay, and means 6 one who haunts a bay, creek or fjord 1 '. In the 9th and 10th centuries it came to be used more especially of those warriors who left their homes in Scandinavia and made raids on the chief European countries.
Scandinavians and the English in the Viking Age. University of Cambridge. The Viking period is, therefore, best defined as the period when Scandinavians played a large role in the British Isles and western Europe as raiders and conquerors.
It is also the period in which Scandinavians settled in many of the areas they conquered, and in the Atlantic islands Women in the Viking Age.
International contact is the key to the Viking Age. In Scandinavian history this period is distinct because large numbers of Scandinavian people left their homelands and voyaged abroad The period is thus defined by the impact the Scandinavians had on the world around them.
The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. In Chisholm, Hugh ed. The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Vikings.
Penguin Books. The term "Viking" has come to be applied to all Scandinavians of the period, but in the Viking Age itself the term vikingr applied only to someone who went i viking, that is plundering.
In this sense, most Viking-age Scandinavians were not Vikings at all, but peaceful farmers and craftsmen who stayed quietly at home all their lives.
The term 'Viking' has come in modern times to be applied to all early medieval Scandinavians and it is directly as a result of this that the controversy has arisen.
As used originally in the Viking Age itself, the word was applied only to someone who went i viking, that is someone whose occupation was piracy.
The earliest use of the word predates the Viking Age by some years and it was not even used exclusively to describe Scandinavian pirates. Most Viking Age Scandinavians were not Vikings at all in this original sense of the word but were simply peaceful farmers, craftsmen and merchants.
The Vikings in the Isle of Man. Aarhus University Press. One of the problems facing any serious writer dealing with the Viking Age concerns the usage of the term 'Viking' itself, which I have used — if sparingly — in much of this book.
The word 'Viking' did not come into general use in the English language until the middle of the nineteenth Century — at about the same time that it was introduced into serious academic literature in Scandinavia — and has since then changed its meaning and been much abused.
It must, however, be accepted that the term is today used throughout the world as a descriptor of the peoples of Scandinavia in the period from the late eighth Century until the mid-eleventh Century.
To the general public, however, it has apparently two meanings; both are respectable and hallowed in the English language by two centuries of usage.
The first is in the sense of 'raider' or 'pirate', the second in the sense of the activities of the Scandinavians outside their own country in that period.
The reasons for the Viking expansion outside of Scandinavia are debated among scholars. Reasons suggested include population pressure, political pressure, and personal enrichment.
The Vikings could never have begun raiding or indeed settling beyond Scandinavia if they had not developed highly effective boat building and navigation skills; skills that were in evidence by the 4th century AD.
At the time of the expansion, the Scandinavian countries were each experiencing a centralization of power, with fierce competition.
Fifty years after the first raids on the monastery at Lindisfarne, England, the Scandinavians ominously shifted their tactics: they began to spend the winters at various locations.
In Ireland, the ships themselves became part of the over-wintering, when the Norse built an earthen bank on the landward side of their docked ships.
These types of sites, called longphorts, are found prominently on the Irish coasts and inland rivers. The Viking economic pattern was a combination of pastoralism, long-distance trade, and piracy.
The Viking trade system, supplemented by piracy, on the other hand, was extremely successful. Legitimate trade in items such as cod, coins, ceramics, glass, walrus ivory, polar bear skins and, of course, slaves were conducted by the Vikings as early as the mid 9th century, in what must have been uneasy relationships between the Abbasid dynasty in Persia, and Charlemagne's empire in Europe.
The Vikings arrived in Iceland in , and in Greenland in In both cases, the importation of the landnam style of pastoralism led to dismal failure.
In addition to a sharp decline in sea temperature, which led to deeper winters, the Norse found themselves in direct competition with the people they called the Skraelings, who we now understand are the ancestors of the Inuits of North America.They settled Wie Funktioniert GeldwГ¤sche three separate areas along approximately kilometres of the western coast. Greenwood Publishing Group. They were carried out primarily in the summer, as the Book Of Ra Freispiele Kostenlos Spielen wintered in Scandinavia. Archived from the original on 7 March They are usually in memory of the dead, though not necessarily placed at graves. Jahrhundert liegt, biete ich Kleidung aus allen Epochen des Mittelalters. Faroe stamps everyday life in the viking age. Sirppi musketti. Register to see more examples It's simple and it's free Register Connect. See examples translated by wikingerzeitliche 3 examples with alignment. JPG 3. Das Spiel stammt FranzГ¶sisches Geld der Wikingerzeit und überlebt in Gotland zusammen mit mehreren anderen mittelalterlichen oder Viking Spiele. Damit beginnt hier das Zeitalter der Wikinger .